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The State of Women’s Economic Rights Worldwide

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Womens Economic Rights

Women's Economic Rights

This Markets in a Minute Chart is available as a poster.

The State of Women’s Economic Rights Worldwide

While significant progress has been made over time, women still face entrepreneurship and employment barriers. In fact, on average around the globe, women have just three-quarters of the legal economic rights granted to men.

Equal opportunities are important not only from a human rights perspective, but also from an economic perspective. When women are able to work outside the home and manage money, they are more likely to join the workforce and contribute to economic growth.

In this Markets in a Minute chart from New York Life Investments, we show the state of women’s legal economic rights around the world.

Economic Opportunity by Country

The World Bank analyzed eight metrics that affect women’s economic empowerment at various life stages: mobility, workplace, pay, marriage, parenthood, entrepreneurship, assets, and pension. For example, in places where women are able to move around freely, they are more likely to join the workforce.

To ensure comparability, women are assumed to work in the main business city of their country and in the formal sector. The formal sector refers to work with companies that contribute taxes and/or are registered with the government. It’s also worth noting that the data is based on legal rights, and religious or customary laws are not considered unless codified.

A score of 100 means that women have the same legal economic rights as men for the eight metrics measured. Here’s how each of the 190 economies stack up, sorted by score.

EconomyScore
Belgium100.0
Canada100.0
Denmark100.0
France100.0
Iceland100.0
Latvia100.0
Luxembourg100.0
Sweden100.0
Estonia97.5
Finland97.5
Germany97.5
Greece97.5
Ireland97.5
Italy97.5
Netherlands97.5
Portugal97.5
Spain97.5
United Kingdom97.5
Australia96.9
Hungary96.9
Norway96.9
Peru95.0
Austria94.4
New Zealand94.4
Paraguay94.4
Slovak Republic94.4
Croatia93.8
Czech Republic93.8
Lithuania93.8
Poland93.8
Serbia93.8
Slovenia93.8
Kosovo91.9
Mauritius91.9
Albania91.3
Cyprus91.3
Taiwan, China91.3
United States91.3
Bulgaria90.6
Romania90.6
Ecuador89.4
Hong Kong SAR, China89.4
El Salvador88.8
Malta88.8
Uruguay88.8
Lao PDR88.1
South Africa88.1
Guyana86.9
Zimbabwe86.9
Cabo Verde86.3
Dominican Republic86.3
Namibia86.3
Nicaragua86.3
São Tomé and Príncipe86.3
Georgia85.6
Switzerland85.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina85.0
Korea, Rep.85.0
North Macedonia85.0
Venezuela, RB85.0
Moldova84.4
Tanzania84.4
Togo84.4
Liberia83.8
Mexico83.8
St. Lucia83.8
Côte d’Ivoire83.1
Timor-Leste83.1
Armenia82.5
Bolivia82.5
Mongolia82.5
Singapore82.5
Turkey82.5
Brazil81.9
Colombia81.9
Japan81.9
Montenegro81.9
Bahamas, The81.3
Philippines81.3
Puerto Rico81.3
Zambia81.3
Grenada80.6
Kenya80.6
Malawi80.6
Costa Rica80.0
Samoa80.0
San Marino80.0
Belize79.4
Burkina Faso79.4
Fiji79.4
Panama79.4
Azerbaijan78.8
Congo, Dem. Rep.78.8
Kiribati78.8
Tajikistan78.8
Ukraine78.8
Vietnam78.8
Rwanda78.1
Thailand78.1
Chile77.5
Israel77.5
Barbados76.9
Kyrgyz Republic76.9
Mozambique76.9
Argentina76.3
Seychelles76.3
Belarus75.6
China75.6
Lesotho75.6
Morocco75.6
Cambodia75.0
Ghana75.0
Honduras75.0
Trinidad and Tobago75.0
Benin74.4
Gambia, The74.4
India74.4
Maldives73.8
Nepal73.8
Angola73.1
Burundi73.1
Russian Federation73.1
Uganda73.1
Kazakhstan72.5
Bhutan71.9
Ethiopia71.9
Madagascar71.9
Central African Republic71.3
St. Kitts and Nevis71.3
Guatemala70.6
Saudi Arabia70.6
South Sudan70.0
Tunisia70.0
Eritrea69.4
Djibouti68.1
Jamaica68.1
Sri Lanka68.1
St. Vincent and the Grenadines68.1
Uzbekistan67.5
Antigua and Barbuda66.3
Chad66.3
Suriname66.3
Guinea65.0
Indonesia64.4
Botswana63.8
Senegal63.8
Nigeria63.1
Sierra Leone63.1
Dominica62.5
Haiti61.3
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.61.3
Mali60.6
Papua New Guinea60.0
Niger59.4
Comoros58.8
Marshall Islands58.8
Myanmar58.8
Palau58.8
Tonga58.8
Vanuatu58.1
Algeria57.5
Gabon57.5
Cameroon56.9
Solomon Islands56.9
United Arab Emirates56.3
Brunei Darussalam53.1
Lebanon52.5
Equatorial Guinea51.9
Libya50.0
Malaysia50.0
Bangladesh49.4
Pakistan49.4
Somalia46.9
Bahrain46.3
Congo, Rep.46.3
Eswatini46.3
Mauritania45.6
Egypt, Arab Rep.45.0
Iraq45.0
Guinea-Bissau42.5
Jordan40.6
Oman38.8
Afghanistan38.1
Syrian Arab Republic36.9
Kuwait32.5
Qatar32.5
Iran, Islamic Rep.31.3
Sudan29.4
Yemen, Rep.26.9
West Bank and Gaza26.3

Data as of September 1, 2019.

Following the introduction of paid paternity leave, Canada joined seven other countries that have a perfect score of 100. Paid leave for fathers contributes positively to women’s economic opportunity as it allows childcare responsibilities to be distributed more evenly.

At the other end of the spectrum, economies in the Middle East and North Africa had the lowest scores, with women having only half of the economic rights granted to men. However, these regions have also seen their scores improving the most.

For example, Saudi Arabia was the top-improving economy, more than doubling its score from 31.8 in 2017 to 70.6 in 2019. The country exacted reforms that had an impact on six out of the eight metrics. The amendments included allowing women to travel abroad without the approval of a male guardian, and changes that prohibit employment discrimination.

A Force for Good, and Economic Growth

All regions have improved their scores, but most countries still need further legal reform to put women on an equal economic footing with men. Doing so will have important socioeconomic implications. For instance, greater equality of economic opportunity is correlated with a reduction in the wage gap, increasing women’s earning power.

It also has positive economic outcomes. One study published in the Harvard Business Review found that when more women joined the workforce, they helped make cities more productive and increased real wages for both women and men.

As investors pursue geographic areas with economic growth potential, they may want to consider countries that are making the biggest strides for women’s economic rights.

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Markets in a Minute

Explainer: A Visual Introduction to Fed Tapering

Broadly speaking, Fed tapering is the reversal of quantitative easing. We show the history of Federal Reserve bond tapering and how it works.

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Fed Tapering

Explainer: A Visual Introduction to Fed Tapering

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The Federal Reserve began tapering its large-scale asset purchases in November 2021, a move likely influenced by:

  • Rising inflation
  • Improving unemployment
  • Strong U.S. GDP growth

More than $4 trillion in capital was injected into the economy through quantitative easing (QE), over the course of the pandemic, inflation is at 40-year highs, and unemployment levels hover below 4%.

As Fed policy responds to a recovering U.S. economy, this Markets in a Minute chart from New York Life Investments shows how Fed tapering works, and its impact on the economy.

How Fed Tapering Works

Fed tapering is the unwinding of the Federal Reserve’s large-scale asset purchases.

After the 2008 financial crisis, large scale asset purchases were introduced for the first time to inject liquidity into the market and help restore confidence. During the pandemic, they were introduced once more, at a rate of $120 billion per month.

Here’s how it works:

  1. The U.S. central bank buys government bonds typically in the form of Treasuries and mortgage-backed securities (MBS).
  2. This influx of demand leads to a rise in these bond prices and their yields (interest rates) fall.
  3. As this lowers the interest rate on the government bonds, what often follows is lower interest rates on loans for households and businesses.
  4. Lower rates stimulate spending.
  5. When the economy is running well, the bank may unwind asset purchases to help keep inflation low, otherwise known as Fed tapering.
  6. Notably, Fed tapering and QE is hotly debated among economists. Those in favor say QE is a critical tool for stimulating the economy. Those against say that it inflates asset prices and contributes to inequality.

    Inflation Levels

    The consumer price index (CPI) rose 7% in December, the highest rise since 1982.
    Fed Tapering

    Given this increase, Lawrence Summers, former U.S. Treasury Secretary and Jason Furman, former chief economist for President Obama say that the Fed didn’t taper soon enough. Other financial heavyweights suggest this is just the beginning of a hawkish approach to inflation.

    So how does Fed tapering impact inflation?

    By tapering asset purchases, the amount of money circulating in the economy that can be used to borrow to buy a house or car is reduced. According to this theory, when there is less spending, inflation will gradually cool down.

    Fed Tapering and Interest Rates

    The Federal Reserve has outlined that it will taper asset purchases before it increases targets on short-term interest rates. By current estimates, interest rates could rise in March.

    However, if the pandemic takes a turn for the worse, the Federal Reserve can shift direction. This gives the Fed time to assess how the market and economy will react before it raises rates.

    To prevent the taper tantrum of 2013, which led to market volatility and U.S. dollar appreciation, Federal Reserve chair Jerome Powell has stated that the Fed must carefully communicate the sequence of QE and tapering to prevent any fear in the market.

    When Doves Cry

    Like the 1940s, the rise in money growth over the pandemic has been driven by government deficits. By contrast, leading up to the 2008 Global Financial Crisis or during the 1950s and 60s, the private sector spurred loan growth.

    Monetary inflation can impact consumer prices and financial asset inflation.

    As CPI and financial markets have soared over the pandemic, investors will be watching closely to see how Fed tapering impacts future monetary policy.

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Markets in a Minute

Ranked: Real Estate Returns by Property Sector (2012-2021)

From residential to retail, are there patterns in real estate return on investment? We rank them by sector over the last decade to find out.

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Real Estate Return on Investment by Sector

For the ninth year in a row, Americans say real estate is the best long-term investment.

However, what might be less clear to the average investor are the different types of investments available within the real estate sector, and how they compare. Real estate return on investment within property sectors has historically been uneven, and 2021 was no exception. While residential property soared, office real estate has performed relatively poorly.

Are there any patterns in the top performers over time?

This Markets in a Minute from New York Life Investments ranks real estate return on investment by sector over the last decade.

Sector Returns Over Time

We used data from the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts to show real estate return on investment by year. A real estate investment trust is a company that owns, operates, or finances income-producing real estate.

Here’s how total returns stack up by property sector, sorted from highest to lowest return in 2021.

 2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Self Storage19.9%9.5%31.4%40.7%-8.1%3.7%2.9%13.7%12.9%57.6%
Residential6.9%-5.4%40.0%17.1%4.5%6.6%3.1%30.9%-10.7%45.8%
Industrial31.3%7.4%21.0%2.6%30.7%20.6%-2.5%48.7%12.2%45.4%
Retail26.7%1.9%27.6%4.6%1.0%-4.8%-5.0%10.7%-25.2%41.9%
Diversified12.2%4.3%27.2%-0.5%10.3%-0.1%-12.5%24.1%-21.8%20.5%
Infrastructure29.9%4.8%20.2%3.7%10.0%35.4%7.0%42.0%7.3%18.6%
Timber37.1%7.9%8.6%-7.0%8.3%21.9%-32.0%42.0%10.3%16.4%
Mortgage19.9%-2.0%17.9%-8.9%22.9%19.8%-2.5%21.3%-18.8%14.7%
Office14.2%5.6%25.9%0.3%13.2%5.3%-14.5%31.4%-18.4%13.4%
Healthcare20.4%-7.1%33.3%-7.3%6.4%0.9%7.6%21.2%-9.9%7.7%
Lodging/Resorts12.5%27.2%32.5%-24.4%24.3%7.2%-12.8%15.7%-23.6%6.3%

Data for 2021 is as of November 30. Specialty and data center sectors are excluded as this data was only available from 2015 onwards.

Self Storage real estate was the best performing sector for the last two years, and also performed well during the 2015 market correction. It tends to perform well when people’s lives are disrupted, such as when they’re moving for a new job, schooling, or due to marriage or divorce. In the case of COVID-19, self storage got an extra boost from people wanting more space in their home amid remote work.

Timber and Industrial real estate have been in the top three performing sectors for at least half of the last decade. Industrial real estate, a category including properties that enable the production, storage, and distribution of goods, has seen increased demand due to the rise of e-commerce. One estimate says the U.S. could require an extra billion square feet of warehouse space by 2025.

On the other hand, the Lodging/Resort sector has frequently been one of the bottom performers. A form of discretionary spending, hotel stays may be one of the first expenses people cut when the economy is in a downturn. This weakness was compounded by lockdown restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

What is a Good Return on Investment in Real Estate?

In light of the above data, investors may be wondering which sectors are “the best” to invest in.

The short answer: it depends. Here’s how real estate return on investment has varied within sectors, using the minimum, median, and maximum returns. We’ve sorted the data from the highest to lowest standard deviation, a measure of risk.

Real Estate Return on Investment

While Timber and Self Storage have delivered strong returns, they have also been relatively risky, with some of the widest variations in returns.

Industrials have seen the highest median return, and their risk is about middle of the pack. The second highest median return goes to the Mortgage sector, which earns income from the interest on mortgages and mortgage-backed securities. The mortgage sector has seen less risk than most other real estate categories, at least in the last decade.

For investors with a lower risk tolerance, Infrastructure may be a sector to consider. These properties had a positive return on investment for all of the last 10 years, and had the lowest risk of any property sector.

Patterns Within Real Estate Return on Investment

By looking at historical patterns, investors can consider how economic conditions may affect real estate return on investment.

Sectors associated with discretionary spending, such as Retail and Lodging, have tended to perform poorly during downturns. On the other hand, Self Storage and Residential properties have historically been more resilient during the 2015 selloff and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Future trends may also offer food for thought. For example, as the population ages and the government puts an increased focus on critical facilities, could the Healthcare and Infrastructure sectors be poised for growth?

Whichever sector(s) an investor focuses in on, real estate serves as an alternative investment that can help diversify any portfolio.

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