Connect with us

Markets in a Minute

The World Macroeconomic Risk Map in 2020

Published

on

This Markets in a Minute Chart is available as a poster.

Macroeconomic Risk by Country

This Markets in a Minute Chart is available as a poster.

The World Macroeconomic Risk Map in 2020

In times of crisis, risk is thrown under the microscope and former assumptions are reassessed.

From the political climate to the flow of international trade, the impact of COVID-19 has destabilized macroeconomic conditions in many jurisdictions globally.

The above Markets in a Minute chart from New York Life Investments is a macroeconomic risk map of 241 countries and regions as global economies shift.

Measuring Risk

Data for the risk map comes from Euler Hermes, and it scores macroeconomic risk primarily based on the following categories: political risk, structural business environment, commercial risk, and financing risk.

The political risk category, for example, takes into account the concentration of power in a country. It also assesses the degree of independence of national institutions and social cohesion.

In total, a country’s macroeconomic risk profile is determined, representing the broad risk of non-payment of companies within a country.

Highest Macroeconomic Risk

Given the sheer weight of the current economic climate, which countries have the highest macroeconomic risk?

CountryRisk Level
🇦🇫 AfghanistanHigh Risk
🇦🇱 AlbaniaHigh Risk
🇦🇴 AngolaHigh Risk
🇦🇷 ArgentinaHigh Risk
🇦🇲 ArmeniaHigh Risk
🇦🇿 AzerbaijanHigh Risk
🇧🇩 BangladeshHigh Risk
🇧🇧 BarbadosHigh Risk
🇧🇾 BelarusHigh Risk
🇧🇿 BelizeHigh Risk
🇧🇴 BoliviaHigh Risk
🇧🇦 Bosnia and HerzegovinaHigh Risk
🇧🇮 BurundiHigh Risk
🇨🇲 CameroonHigh Risk
🇨🇻 Cape Verde IslandsHigh Risk
🇨🇫 Central African RepublicHigh Risk
🇹🇩 ChadHigh Risk
🇰🇲 ComorosHigh Risk
🇨🇩 Congo (Democratic Rep Of)High Risk
🇨🇬 Congo (People's Rep Of)High Risk
CubaHigh Risk
DjiboutiHigh Risk
Equatorial GuineaHigh Risk
EritreaHigh Risk
FijiHigh Risk
GabonHigh Risk
GambiaHigh Risk
GeorgiaHigh Risk
Guinea (Rep Of)High Risk
Guinea BissauHigh Risk
HaitiHigh Risk
IranHigh Risk
IraqHigh Risk
KazakhstanHigh Risk
KyrgyzstanHigh Risk
LaosHigh Risk
LebanonHigh Risk
LiberiaHigh Risk
LibyaHigh Risk
MadagascarHigh Risk
MalawiHigh Risk
MaldivesHigh Risk
MaliHigh Risk
Marshall IslandsHigh Risk
MauritaniaHigh Risk
MoldovaHigh Risk
MongoliaHigh Risk
MontenegroHigh Risk
MozambiqueHigh Risk
Myanmar (Burma)High Risk
NauruHigh Risk
NepalHigh Risk
NicaraguaHigh Risk
NigerHigh Risk
NigeriaHigh Risk
North KoreaHigh Risk
PakistanHigh Risk
Papua New GuineaHigh Risk
SeychellesHigh Risk
Sierra LeoneHigh Risk
Solomon IslandsHigh Risk
SomaliaHigh Risk
South SudanHigh Risk
Sri LankaHigh Risk
SudanHigh Risk
SurinameHigh Risk
SyriaHigh Risk
TajikistanHigh Risk
Timor LesteHigh Risk
TogoHigh Risk
TongaHigh Risk
TurkmenistanHigh Risk
UkraineHigh Risk
UzbekistanHigh Risk
VenezuelaHigh Risk
YemenHigh Risk
ZambiaHigh Risk
ZimbabweHigh Risk

Argentina’s soaring inflation is estimated to reach 40.7% in 2020. Coupled with a poorly-timed debt restructuring, its economy is anticipated to shrink 12% over the course of the year. Yet for all its hardship, the country managed to send COVID-19 relief money to its citizens in just three days.

Meanwhile, countries including Venezuela and Bolivia are at steeper risk, compounded by their heavy reliance on commodity exports, such as oil.

Medium to Sensitive Risk

Overall, roughly 100 jurisdictions live within this mid-range risk threshold.

CountryRisk Level
🇦🇼 ArubaMedium Risk
🇧🇼 BotswanaMedium Risk
🇧🇷 BrazilMedium Risk
🇧🇬 BulgariaMedium Risk
🇨🇳 ChinaMedium Risk
🇭🇷 CroatiaMedium Risk
🇨🇾 CyprusMedium Risk
🇩🇴 Dominican RepublicMedium Risk
🇸🇻 El SalvadorMedium Risk
🇬🇷 GreeceMedium Risk
🇬🇹 GuatemalaMedium Risk
🇭🇺 HungaryMedium Risk
🇮🇸 IcelandMedium Risk
🇮🇳 IndiaMedium Risk
🇮🇩 IndonesiaMedium Risk
🇯🇴 JordanMedium Risk
🇰🇼 KuwaitMedium Risk
🇲🇦 MoroccoMedium Risk
🇳🇺 NiueMedium Risk
ParaguayMedium Risk
PhilippinesMedium Risk
QatarMedium Risk
RomaniaMedium Risk
RwandaMedium Risk
Saudi ArabiaMedium Risk
ThailandMedium Risk
Trinidad & TobagoMedium Risk
AnguillaMedium Risk
BahamasMedium Risk
BruneiMedium Risk
ChileMedium Risk
ColombiaMedium Risk
Costa RicaMedium Risk
French PolynesiaMedium Risk
Hong KongMedium Risk
IsraelMedium Risk
LatviaMedium Risk
LithuaniaMedium Risk
MacaoMedium Risk
MalaysiaMedium Risk
MauritiusMedium Risk
MexicoMedium Risk
MontserratMedium Risk
PanamaMedium Risk
PeruMedium Risk
PolandMedium Risk
PortugalMedium Risk
Puerto RicoMedium Risk
SloveniaMedium Risk
United Arab EmiratesMedium Risk
UruguayMedium Risk
AlgeriaSensitive Risk
Antigua & BarbudaSensitive Risk
BahrainSensitive Risk
BeninSensitive Risk
BhutanSensitive Risk
Burkina FasoSensitive Risk
CambodiaSensitive Risk
Cook IslandsSensitive Risk
Côte d'IvoireSensitive Risk
CuracaoSensitive Risk
DominicaSensitive Risk
EcuadorSensitive Risk
EgyptSensitive Risk
EswatiniSensitive Risk
EthiopiaSensitive Risk
GhanaSensitive Risk
GrenadaSensitive Risk
GuyanaSensitive Risk
HondurasSensitive Risk
JamaicaSensitive Risk
KenyaSensitive Risk
KiribatiSensitive Risk
LesothoSensitive Risk
MicronesiaSensitive Risk
NamibiaSensitive Risk
North MacedoniaSensitive Risk
OmanSensitive Risk
PalauSensitive Risk
RussiaSensitive Risk
SamoaSensitive Risk
Sao Tome & PrincipeSensitive Risk
SenegalSensitive Risk
SerbiaSensitive Risk
South AfricaSensitive Risk
St. Kitts & NevisSensitive Risk
St. LuciaSensitive Risk
St. MaartenSensitive Risk
St. Vincent & The GrenadinesSensitive Risk
TanzaniaSensitive Risk
TunisiaSensitive Risk
TurkeySensitive Risk
TuvaluSensitive Risk
UgandaSensitive Risk
VanuatuSensitive Risk
VietnamSensitive Risk

As Russia contends with sanctions and counter-sanctions with the West, its political conditions face greater risks. Alongside this, increased involvement in the Syria crisis also factors negatively.

On the other hand, Indonesia’s strong banking system and solid fiscal policies are met with interest rates that fall around 4%. This means that its central bank has leeway to lower interest rates to help spur growth.

Lowest Macroeconomic Risk

As the dust begins to settle, which countries are positioned with the least risk?

France’s high quality education system and diversified economy provide key strengths. Sweden, also with a highly educated population, is cushioned with solid public finances. Also, its R&D spending is among the highest globally.

Meanwhile, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea have favorable factors at play.

CountryRisk Level
🇦🇸 American SamoaLow Risk
🇧🇲 BermudaLow Risk
🇻🇬 British Virgin IslandsLow Risk
🇰🇾 Cayman IslandsLow Risk
🇨🇽 Christmas IslandLow Risk
🇨🇨 Cocos (Keeling) IslandsLow Risk
🇨🇿 Czech RepublicLow Risk
🇫🇰 Falkland IslandsLow Risk
🇫🇴 Faroe IslandsLow Risk
🇬🇮 GibraltarLow Risk
🇬🇱 GreenlandLow Risk
🇬🇺 GuamLow Risk
🇮🇪 IrelandLow Risk
🇮🇹 ItalyLow Risk
🗾 JapanLow Risk
🇲🇹 MaltaLow Risk
🇾🇹 MayotteLow Risk
🇳🇨 New CaledoniaLow Risk
🇳🇫 Norfolk IslandLow Risk
Northern Mariana IslandsLow Risk
Pitcairn IslandsLow Risk
San MarinoLow Risk
SlovakiaLow Risk
South KoreaLow Risk
SpainLow Risk
St HelenaLow Risk
St. Pierre Et MiquelonLow Risk
Svalbard & Jan MayenLow Risk
TaiwanLow Risk
TokelauLow Risk
Turks & CaicosLow Risk
US Virgin IslandsLow Risk
Wallis & FutunaLow Risk
AndorraLow Risk
AntarcticaLow Risk
AustraliaLow Risk
AustriaLow Risk
BelgiumLow Risk
BES Islands (Bonaire, St Eustatius, Saba)
Low Risk
Bouvet IslandLow Risk
British Indian Ocean TerritoryLow Risk
CanadaLow Risk
DenmarkLow Risk
EstoniaLow Risk
FinlandLow Risk
FranceLow Risk
French GuianaLow Risk
French Southern TerritoryLow Risk
GermanyLow Risk
GuadeloupeLow Risk
Heard and McDonald IslandsLow Risk
LiechtensteinLow Risk
LuxembourgLow Risk
MartiniqueLow Risk
MonacoLow Risk
NetherlandsLow Risk
New ZealandLow Risk
NorwayLow Risk
ReunionLow Risk
SingaporeLow Risk
South Georgia/Sandwich IslandsLow Risk
SwedenLow Risk
SwitzerlandLow Risk
United KingdomLow Risk
United StatesLow Risk
US Minor Outlying IslandsLow Risk
Vatican CityLow Risk

How about the U.S.? Backed by the world’s reserve currency, its strengths rest on its diverse GDP and low interest rates. However, the implications of high corporate debt—climbing to $10.2 trillion—weighs significantly, not to mention increasing political fragmentation.

As central banks in wealthy countries press ahead, the end of stimulus packages still seems like a distant prospect. Together, rich nations are projected to borrow a combined 17% of their GDP in this year alone. This, matched with low inflation, is helping to defend economies from collapse.

Still, it raises a key question—is this necessary for a sustainable global recovery ahead?

Advisor channel footer

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

Continue Reading
Comments

Markets in a Minute

Visualizing S&P Performance in 2020, By Sector

Who were the big winners of 2020? We rank the S&P performance of 11 sectors—and provide possible explanations on why the market had a strong year.

Published

on

s&p sector performance charts

Visualizing S&P Performance in 2020, By Sector

With 2020 finally over, many are breathing a sigh of relief.

Investors faced a tumultuous year. Still, the S&P 500 finished strong with a 16% gain, outpacing its decade-long average by 4%. Many sectors that provided the new essentials—like online products, communication software and home materials—outperformed the market. It was, of course, a challenging year for other sectors including energy.

This Markets in a Minute graphic from New York Life Investments ranks the 2020 performance of every sector in the S&P 500 using data from S&P Global.

S&P Performance By Sector

As the world coped with devastating losses and uncertainty, how resilient were S&P 500 sectors?

Here’s how every sector performed, from top to bottom.

S&P 500 Sector2020 Price Return2019 Price Return10-Year Annualized ReturnsP/E (Trailing)*
Information Technology42.2%48.0%18.9%31.6
Consumer Discretionary32.1%26.2%16.0%48.1
Communication Services22.2%30.9%5.6%27.5
Materials18.1%21.9%6.6%40.4
Health Care11.4%18.7%13.8%25.3
Industrials9.0%26.8%9.6%28.9
Consumer Staples7.6%24.0%8.7%25.1
Utilities-2.8%22.2%7.2%21.1
Financials-4.1%29.2%8.6%15.3
Real Estate-5.2%24.9%6.6%36.3
Energy-37.3%7.6%-5.6%N/A
S&P 50016.3%28.9%11.6%31.2

*Trailing P/E measures market value divided by the last 12 months of earnings

As no surprise, technology came out on top with over 42% returns for the year.

COVID-19’s economic impact benefited the sector as activities, from work to socializing, moved online. In 2020, the tech sector’s returns were more than double its 18.9% average over the last decade.

Consumer discretionary was also one of 2020’s top sectors. Home to online marketplace giants along with electric vehicle companies, it posted a 32.1% return—surpassing its 2019 gains.

With -37.3% returns, energy was the hardest hit of all. Historic demand disruptions, along with OPEC tensions led to sector weakness. Like energy, real estate had a difficult year. Still, after declining 40% in March, by year-end, the sector mostly rebounded with just 5% losses.

Why The Market Had a Strong Year

Looking back, one of the biggest questions baffling investors is: why did the market perform so well? A number of factors, including government stimulus, low interest rates, and vaccine expectations can all help explain some of its behavior.

Government Stimulus

In March, the U.S. government approved a $2.2 trillion CARES-Act relief package, breaking historical records for stimulus. This helped create optimism in the market as individuals, small-businesses and corporations received financial relief.

At the same time, the Federal Reserve extended its “quantitative easing” policies that it introduced in 2008. Quantitative easing is when the central bank buys a number of longer-term securities. This type of measure is designed to boost economic activity through injecting liquidity into the market.

In 2020, the Federal Reserve began purchasing corporate bonds and other assets—on top of treasuries and mortgage-backed securities (MBS)—for the first time ever. In fact, the Federal Reserve is now estimated to 34% of MBS in the U.S. to help protect American homeowners.

Low Interest Rates

Another force that may have contributed to S&P performance in 2020 was the Federal Reserve’s low-interest rate policy.

Low interest rates mean that borrowing costs are low, which can be favorable for business conditions. In September, the Federal Reserve announced a “lower for longer policy”, stating that it won’t raise rates until 2023.

Vaccine Expectations

The promise of a vaccine rollout has contributed to S&P 500 performance momentum, along with expectations that things could return to normal in 2021. It also corresponded with double-digit gains for the health care sector.

Though roadblocks and uncertainties remain, vaccine announcements in November also helped spur an uptick in the energy sector, which will be influenced by global vaccine efforts in the months ahead. This, in turn, will help travel resume to normal and spark oil & gas demand.

S&P Performance: What Comes Next in 2021

With the first year of the pandemic behind us, it’s hard to say how the story will continue.

As countries acquire vaccines, there is hope for S&P 500 performance, and future stimulus measures could prop up the stock market. Of course, both the containment of the virus and people feeling safe will have an outsized impact on S&P sectors in the shift to a post-pandemic world.

Advisor channel footer

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

Continue Reading

Markets in a Minute

How Do Countries Around the World Compensate for Equity Risk?

Published

on

Equity Risk Premiums

How Do Countries Compensate Investors for Equity Risk?

When investors purchase stocks internationally, they are exposed to additional risks. Companies may have higher volatility based on a country’s economic, political, and legal conditions. In exchange for taking on the additional risk, investors demand a higher return potential, known as an equity risk premium.

Which countries have the highest premiums? In this Markets in a Minute from New York Life Investments, we explore equity risk premiums for countries around the world.

Behind the Numbers

The premiums are based on a study by a New York University researcher, Aswath Damodaran. All data is as of July 1, 2020.

Here are the steps Damodaran took to determine a country’s equity risk premium:

StepExample - Brazil
1. Find a country’s credit (bond) risk rating.Credit risk rating: Ba2
2. Based on that rating, determine the credit spread, which is the additional yield over a risk-free investment.Credit spread for Ba2 rating = 3.53%
3. To account for the additional risk stocks carry over bonds, multiply the credit spread by the relative equity market volatility.

This is the country risk premium.
3.53% credit spread x 1.25 relative equity market volatility

= 4.41% country risk premium
4. Add the country risk premium to the mature market risk premium (obtained by using the S&P 500 risk premium).4.41% country risk premium + 5.23% mature market risk premium
5. The resulting value is the country equity risk premium.9.64% country equity risk premium

Premiums will shift over time as a country’s credit rating, credit spread, and equity market volatility changes.

Equity Risk Premiums by Country

Below, we look at how equity risk premiums break down for 177 countries and regions, organized from highest to lowest.

CountryEquity Risk Premium
Sudan27.14%
Venezuela27.14%
Yemen, Republic27.14%
Algeria22.86%
Argentina22.86%
Guinea22.86%
Haiti22.86%
Korea, D.P.R.22.86%
Lebanon22.86%
Liberia22.86%
Somalia22.86%
Syria22.86%
Zambia22.86%
Zimbabwe22.86%
Ecuador19.92%
Congo (Republic of)18.46%
Cuba18.46%
Iran18.46%
Libya18.46%
Malawi18.46%
Mozambique18.46%
Sierra Leone18.46%
Barbados16.25%
Belize16.25%
Congo (Democratic Republic of)16.25%
Gabon16.25%
Guinea-Bissau16.25%
Iraq16.25%
Angola14.79%
Belarus14.79%
Bosnia and Herzegovina14.79%
El Salvador14.79%
Gambia14.79%
Ghana14.79%
Madagascar14.79%
Maldives14.79%
Mali14.79%
Moldova14.79%
Mongolia14.79%
Myanmar14.79%
Nicaragua14.79%
Niger14.79%
Pakistan14.79%
Solomon Islands14.79%
St. Vincent & the Grenadines14.79%
Suriname14.79%
Tajikistan14.79%
Togo14.79%
Ukraine14.79%
Bahrain13.32%
Benin13.32%
Burkina Faso13.32%
Cambodia13.32%
Cameroon13.32%
Cape Verde13.32%
Costa Rica13.32%
Egypt13.32%
Ethiopia13.32%
Guyana13.32%
Jamaica13.32%
Kenya13.32%
Kyrgyzstan13.32%
Nigeria13.32%
Papua New Guinea13.32%
Rwanda13.32%
Sri Lanka13.32%
Swaziland13.32%
Tunisia13.32%
Uganda13.32%
Albania11.84%
Bolivia11.84%
Cook Islands11.84%
Greece11.84%
Honduras11.84%
Jordan11.84%
Montenegro11.84%
Tanzania11.84%
Turkey11.84%
Uzbekistan11.84%
Armenia10.52%
Bangladesh10.52%
Côte d'Ivoire10.52%
Dominican Republic10.52%
Fiji10.52%
Macedonia10.52%
Oman10.52%
Senegal10.52%
Serbia10.52%
Vietnam10.52%
Azerbaijan9.64%
Bahamas9.64%
Brazil9.64%
Croatia9.64%
Cyprus9.64%
Georgia9.64%
Namibia9.64%
Guatemala8.90%
Morocco8.90%
Paraguay8.90%
South Africa8.90%
Trinidad and Tobago8.90%
Hungary8.46%
India8.46%
Italy8.46%
Kazakhstan8.46%
Montserrat8.46%
Portugal8.46%
Romania8.46%
Russia8.46%
St. Maarten8.46%
Andorra (Principality of)8.03%
Bulgaria8.03%
Colombia8.03%
Curacao8.03%
Indonesia8.03%
Philippines8.03%
Sharjah8.03%
Uruguay8.03%
Aruba7.58%
Mauritius7.58%
Mexico7.58%
Panama7.58%
Slovenia7.58%
Spain7.58%
Thailand7.58%
Turks and Caicos Islands7.58%
Laos6.99%
Latvia6.99%
Lithuania6.99%
Malaysia6.99%
Peru6.99%
Bermuda6.48%
Botswana6.48%
Brunei6.48%
Iceland6.48%
Ireland6.48%
Malta6.48%
Poland6.48%
Ras Al Khaimah (Emirate of)6.48%
Slovakia6.48%
Chile6.26%
China6.26%
Estonia6.26%
Israel6.26%
Japan6.26%
Saudi Arabia6.26%
Belgium6.12%
Cayman Islands6.12%
Czech Republic6.12%
Guernsey (States of)6.12%
Hong Kong6.12%
Jersey (States of)6.12%
Macao6.12%
Qatar6.12%
Taiwan6.12%
Abu Dhabi5.96%
France5.96%
Isle of Man5.96%
Korea5.96%
Kuwait5.96%
United Arab Emirates5.96%
United Kingdom5.96%
Austria5.81%
Finland5.81%
Australia5.23%
Canada5.23%
Denmark5.23%
Germany5.23%
Liechtenstein5.23%
Luxembourg5.23%
Netherlands5.23%
New Zealand5.23%
Norway5.23%
Singapore5.23%
Sweden5.23%
Switzerland5.23%
United States5.23%

Venezuela, Sudan, and Yemen are tied for the highest equity risk premium. While Venezuela battles hyperinflation, Yemen is suffering from a humanitarian crisis and Sudan has high perceived corruption.

In the mid-range, emerging countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and India carry moderate risk. However, they may also provide investors with higher returns than can be expected in mature markets.

On the low end of the scale, countries such as the United States, Singapore, and Germany have AAA credit ratings and the lowest premium of 5.23%.

Applying Risk Premiums to Companies

How can investors determine the equity risk premiums for individual companies?

One method is to assume that all companies incorporated in a country have equal exposure to that country’s risk. However, this is a simplified approach and does not account for the fact that a company’s operations may extend into other markets.

Alternatively, investors can calculate a weighted-average premium based on the location of a company’s revenue or production. For example, a consumer products business may weigh exposure based on the location of their revenue. An oil and gas company, where true risk lies in their reserves rather than where they sell, may instead be weighted by production.

Here’s a hypothetical example for an oil & gas company that has reserves in the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela:

CountryProduction (in kboed)*% of TotalEquity Risk Premium
Total300100%14.41%
U.S.6020%5.23%
Saudi Arabia12040%6.26%
Venezuela12040%27.14%

* Kilobarrels of oil equivalent per day.

The weighted-average equity risk premium is 14.41%.

Importantly, even countries headquartered in mature markets have international risks if they carry out operations in other countries.

Risk Vs. Potential Reward

Every country presents varying degrees of risk based on local conditions. As investors look to diversify internationally, it’s critical to consider two factors:

  • The additional risk
  • The potential additional return

Equity risk premiums serve as a guide that can help investors compare country risk, and the additional return potential they should expect for tolerating that risk.

Advisor channel footer

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

Continue Reading
New York Life Investments Company Spotlight

Subscribe

Are you a financial advisor?

Subscribe here to get every update, including when new charts or infographics go live:

Thank you!
Given email address is already subscribed, thank you!
Please provide a valid email address.
Please complete the CAPTCHA.
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

Popular