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A History of Revolution in U.S. Taxation

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As Benjamin Franklin once said, “Nothing is certain except death and taxes.”

While this quote was penned in 1789, his words still ring true today. U.S. taxation has changed over time, but it has always existed in some shape or form for over 250 years.

U.S. Taxation: 1765 to Today

In today’s infographic from New York Life Investments, we explore the history of U.S. taxation – from its colonial roots to its recent reform.

A History of Revolution in U.S. Taxation

The modern American tax code has little resemblance to its early iterations.

Over the last few centuries, Americans have battled against British taxation, faced sky-high tax rates to fund war efforts, and enjoyed tax cuts designed to boost economic growth.

A Timeline of U.S. Taxation

Today, total U.S. tax revenue exceeds $3.4 trillion. Below are some notable events that have shaped modern American taxation.

Colonial Roots: 1765 to 1783

1765 – Stamp Act
In its first direct tax on the colonists, Britain places a tax on all paper – including ship’s papers, court documents, advertisements, and even playing cards.

1767 – Townshend Revenue Act
Importation duties are placed on British products such as glass, paint, and tea. The taxes are expected to raise £40,000 annually, (£6,500,000 in 2018 GBP). As hostilities continue to bubble up, colonists argue for “No taxation without representation”. Although taxes are imposed on the colonists, they aren’t able to elect representatives to British parliament.

1770 – The Boston Massacre
British troops occupy Boston to end the boycott on British goods. The March 5th Boston Massacre sees five colonists killed. By April, all Townshend duties are repealed except for the one on tea.

1773 – The Tea Act (May 10)
Britain grants the struggling British East India Company a monopoly on tea in America. While no new taxes are imposed, this angers colonists as it is seen as a thinly veiled plan to gain colonial support for the Townshend tax while threatening local business.

1773 – The Boston Tea Party (December 16)
Three ships arrive in Boston carrying British East India Company tea. Colonists refuse to allow the unloading of the tea, throwing all 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbour.

1775-1783 – The American Revolutionary War
Growing tensions between Britain and the colonists erupt in a full-scale war. After eight long years, Britain officially recognizes the independence of the United States.

A Free Nation: 1787 to 1943

1787 – The U.S. Constitution
Congress gains the “power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises.” The government primarily earns revenue from excise taxes and tariffs, including an “importation tax” on slaves.

1791-1794 – Whiskey Rebellion
Alexander Hamilton, the nation’s first Secretary of Treasury, leads the implementation of a whiskey excise tax. In 1794, whiskey rebels destroy a tax inspector’s home. President Washington sends in troops and quells the rebellion.

1862 – The Nation’s First Income Tax
To help pay for the Civil War, President Lincoln legislates the nation’s first income tax.

Income level (1862 dollars)Income level (2019 dollars)Tax Rate
$600-$10,000$15,000-$250,0003%
$10,000+$250,000+5%
Over the coming years, income tax is repealed and reinstated twice.

1913 – 16th Amendment
As World War I looms the 16th amendment is ratified, allowing for taxation without allocation according to state populations. An income tax is permanently introduced for both individuals and corporations, and the first Form 1040 is created.

Income Level (1913 dollars)Income level (2019 dollars)Tax Rate
$3,000+$77,000+1%
$500,000+$12,800,000+7%
At this time, less than 1% of the population is paying income tax.

1918 – The Revenue Act
Tax rates skyrocket to pay for World War I efforts. The top tax rate is 77%.

1935 – Social Security Act
In light of the Great Depression, the Social Security Act introduces:

  • An old-age pension program
  • Unemployment insurance
  • Funding for health and welfare programs

To fund the programs, a 2% tax is shared equally by an employee and their employer.

1942 – The Revenue Act
Described by President Roosevelt as “the greatest tax bill in American history”, the Act increases taxes and the numbers of citizens subject to income tax. Total personal and corporate income tax revenue more than doubles:

YearRevenue2019 dollar equivalent
1941$3.4 billion$59.2 billion
1942$8.0 billion$123.8 billion

1943 – Current Tax Payment Act
It becomes mandatory for employers to withhold taxes from employees’ wages and remit them four times per year.

Modern Times: 1961 to 2018

1961 – Beginning of The Computer Age
The National Computer Center at Martinsburg, West Virginia is formally dedicated to assisting the IRS in its shift to computer data processing.

1986 – Tax Reform Act
The Tax Reform Act:

  • Lowers the top individual tax rate from 50% to 28%
  • Increases taxes on capital gains from 20% to 28%
  • Reduces corporate tax breaks

The revisions are designed to make the tax code simpler and fairer.

1992 – Electronic Filing
Taxpayers who owe money are given the option to file electronically.

2001 – Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act
President George W. Bush implements large tax cuts:

  • Creates a new lowest individual tax rate of 10%
  • Reduces the top individual tax rate from 39.6% to 35%
  • Doubles child tax credit from $500 to $1,000* (*From $700 to $1,400 in 2019 dollars)

2017 – Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
President Trump signs off on reductions in tax rates, while some deductions are made more restrictive.

For example, State and Local Taxes (SALT) deductions are capped at $10,000. Residents in high-tax states such as New York, New Jersey, California and Connecticut could see substantially higher tax bills.

The Future

U.S. taxation policy remains a contentious issue and shifts depending on who is in the White House.

Investors need to stay informed on current legislation, so they can engage in proactive financial planning and minimize their tax obligations.

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Infographics

The Rise of the Values-Driven Investor

Values-driven investing is on the rise, and this in-depth infographic profiles the diverse demographic it appeals to and why.

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The Rise of the Values-Driven Investor

Many consumers today are considered to be “values-driven”, meaning they consider a company’s stance on environmental and social issues before making a purchase.

Such individuals will research a company’s reputation, boycott brands that are not aligned with their beliefs, and avoid products that negatively impact the environment. These types of concerns, however, aren’t just influencing the things people buy—they’re also changing the way people invest.

In this infographic from New York Life Investments, we profile the values-driven investor and examine the different ways their concerns can be incorporated into an investment portfolio.

What is a Values-Driven Investor?

Values-driven investors seek to align their portfolios with their personal beliefs and create a positive impact for society. Because of these goals, they are naturally driven to consider environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors when selecting investments.

One common misconception is that this type of investing is only for millennials, but survey data proves this is far from the truth.

Age Group
% Interested in ESG Investing
24-3991%
40-5484%
55+80%

Source: New York Life Investments

Although ESG investing is the most popular amongst younger investors, older investors are not far behind, with 80% of correspondents aged 55+ demonstrating interest. This interest also extends across wealth brackets, as shown in the table below.

Personal Assets% Aware of ESG Investing% Likely to Invest in an ESG Fund, if Aware
$100K-$150K41%43%
$150K-$250K43%40%
$250K-$500K31%41%
$500K-$1MM34%37%
$1M+42%29%

Source: New York Life Investments

It’s clear that ESG investing has captured the attention of a very diverse group of people, but what kinds of issues do these values-driven investors actually care about?

ESG Priorities by Age Group

Values-driven investors are likely to prioritize issues differently depending on their age. For individuals between the ages of 25 and 39, longer-term issues such as global warming receive the highest concern. This is likely due to younger investors having more years ahead of them, and thus a greater chance of exposure to the effects of climate-related issues.

Below is a breakdown of each age group’s ESG priorities.

IssueAges 25 - 39Ages 40 - 54Age 55+ 
Global warming34%34%27%
Impact of plastic on the oceans21%30%26%
Sustainability24%23%17%
Data fraud or theft14%20%29%
Gun control13%20%22%

Source: New York Life Investments

For investors with a shorter time horizon to retirement, immediate concerns take the highest priority. For example, 29% of investors aged 55 and over were concerned with data fraud or theft, compared to just 14% among those aged 25 to 39.

How Can a Portfolio Reflect These Concerns?

Values-based investors have two primary approaches to choose from when building a portfolio tailored to their beliefs.

Approach #1: ESG Exclusionary

The first approach is ESG exclusionary investing, also known as “negative screening”. This method is well-suited for investors who want their portfolios to be completely aligned with their beliefs and values.

It involves the reduction, or avoidance, of exposure to specific industries that go against one’s values. Industries that are commonly screened out include tobacco, gambling, alcohol, and fossil fuels, the latter of which has gained significant attention in recent years.

Commonly referred to as “fossil fuel divestment”, this type of exclusionary approach focuses on freezing new investments in the sector while gradually removing existing portfolio exposure. Today, over 1,200 institutional investors representing $14.6T in assets have pledged their commitments to going fossil fuel free.

Institution TypeBreakdown of Total Assets Pledged
Faith-based organization32%
Educational institution15%
Philanthropic foundation15%
For profit corporation13%
Government13%
Pension fund13%
Non-governmental organization (NGO)4%
Healthcare institution1%

Source: Fossil Free (a project of 350.org)

Approach #2: ESG Inclusionary

The second approach is ESG inclusionary, also known as “positive screening”. This method is for investors who believe that companies with strong sustainability practices can outperform over the long term.

Instead of avoiding specific industries, an ESG inclusionary approach seeks to identify the best companies in any given industry. In practice, this involves the analysis of both traditional financial metrics and ESG factors.

Examples of Traditional Financial AnalysisExamples of ESG Factor Analysis
Analyze the company’s financial statementsExamine the company’s waste management practices
Study historical market trendsMonitor the company’s employee relations
Consider the direction of the broader economyGrade the company’s transparency & disclosure

Research on the effectiveness of ESG factor analysis has been overwhelmingly positive, and is a likely reason for the robust growth these types of strategies have seen in recent years. In fact, ESG leaders (companies with strong ESG practices) even outperformed their respective indices during the COVID-19 selloff in Q1 2020.

Building a Well-Aligned Portfolio

Despite several myths surrounding sustainable investment, there is an incredibly diverse group of individuals who want their portfolios to reflect their personal beliefs.

The typical values-driven investor is 48 years old, which means they’re likely in their peak earning years and are able to make larger portfolio contributions. Thus, this growing demographic is one that the investment industry should not ignore.

The types of issues these investors care about, however, can vary depending on age and other metrics. Thus, it’s important for them to learn about the different investment approaches available. Armed with this knowledge, investors can take better control of their finances and feel more confident in their decisions.

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Infographics

Paradigm Shift: The Rise of Women’s Earning Power

As women’s earning power continues to grow, wealth managers who cultivate a deeper understanding of these clients will ultimately stand out from the rest.

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This infographic is available as a poster.

Paradigm Shift: The Rise of Women’s Earning Power

In 2019, women owned almost 33% of global wealth.

Looking at North America alone, women control $35 trillion in assets. These assets are set to grow by a 6.9% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) until 2023, after COVID-19 effects are accounted for. Notably, the acceleration of female breadwinners is amplifying this trend.

The above infographic from New York Life Investments examines four archetypes of female breadwinners, highlighting their household dynamic and financial priorities as the wealth landscape continues to shift.

A Room of One’s Own

Today, one segment of women makes up nearly 25% of households with over $250K of investable assets: female married breadwinners.

They remain a blind spot across the wealth management profession, but provide a vital opportunity for wealth management professionals.

From a high-level perspective, these primary earners describe themselves as independent and hard working, according to a study by RTi Research. While 75% work with an advisor, only 41% feel knowledgeable about their finances. At the same time, 82% of the primary earners are college graduates, while advancing their financial education remains a priority.

Below is a deep dive on the spectrum of female married breadwinner households, outlining their key mindsets, behaviors, and outlooks.

The Four Archetypes

Female breadwinner households can be broken down into four broad archetypes.

1. We’re In This Together

Accounting for 39% of respondent households, this archetype reflects a collaborative dynamic where both partners appreciate each other and are aligned on future financial objectives.

Household Dynamic

  1. Works as a team with their partner
  2. Partners are proud and appreciative of one other
  3. Typically have a positive outlook

Defining Opinions and Behaviors

  • My spouse supports me: 80%
  • My spouse appreciates my hard work: 74%
  • We are aligned on future financial goals: 66%
  • We live in a “normal” household: 59%

2. I Got It

This archetype comprised 25% of respondents. Typically, the primary earner illustrated pride and enjoyment in this role. At the same time, they felt supported by their partners.

Household Dynamic

  1. Comfortable and experienced in this position
  2. Spouse is supportive and comfortable with a secondary role

Defining Opinions and Behaviors

  • Primary earner role is a source of pride: 43%
  • Primary earner role is fulfilling: 41%
  • As the primary earner I am in control: 33%
  • Always been the primary earner: 61%

3. A Little Help Please

With 26% of respondents, this archetype was an outlier, mainly as they did not feel a positive impact from being a breadwinner. These women carry a larger burden on their shoulders and would prefer if their partner would take on more household tasks.

Household Dynamic

  1. Feel that everything relies on them, want their partner to contribute more
  2. Would even prefer if roles were reversed

Defining Opinions and Behavior

  • Everything depends on me: 42%
  • Want spouse to take on more responsibilities: 29%
  • Negative impact as primary breadwinner: 97%
  • Prefer if spouse was the primary earner: 59%

4. I’ve Got It From Here

This final archetype accounted for 33% of households. These were characterized by the women taking on a primary earner role later in life, while feeling proud in the role as the highest earner.

Household Dynamic

  1. Typically new to primary earner role
  2. Feels supported by their spouse, and long-term financial goals are aligned
  3. Appreciates the hard work partner has done in the past

Defining Opinions and Behaviors

  • My spouse supports me: 59%
  • My spouse appreciates my hard work: 51%
  • Became primary earner later in life: 100%
  • Feels strong: 52%

Getting a better sense of these archetypes can help advisors personalize their approaches—and harness a clearer appreciation of their clients financial goals.

On the Horizon

Of course, female married breadwinners have a diverse range of financial goals. These investment goals and objectives typically vary across different life stages, but they also share many similarities.

For primary earners 60 and over, the most important investment goals were a comfortable lifestyle and protecting their future. On the other hand, breadwinners between the ages of 40-59 were most concerned with saving for retirement. Finally, the key investment goals of those aged 25-39 also surrounded a comfortable lifestyle, saving for children’s education, and saving for retirement.

As women amass greater wealth at faster speeds, understanding how to manage it well becomes increasingly crucial.

A New Wealth Frontier

It comes as no surprise that the primary female earners who work with advisors have better views on their finances.

As a result, opportunity knocks. Half of female breadwinners see their financial advisor as a business partner, and 33% see them as a necessity. At the same time, 66% of female primary earners want an advisor that will make them the most money.

As this powerful economic force continues to accelerate, it could create a watershed decade ahead for both women’s wealth and the wealth management field.

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